In other words, it is the process of adding or modifying DNA in an organism to bring about great deal of transformation.
Frequently asked questions on genetically modified foods May These questions and answers have been prepared by WHO in response to questions and concerns from WHO Member State Governments with regard to the nature and safety of genetically modified food.
What are genetically modified GM organisms and GM foods? Genetically modified organisms GMOs can be defined as organisms i.
It allows selected individual genes to be transferred from one organism into another, also between nonrelated species.
|Pin It The genetic engineering of food came upon us very suddenly in ; nowadays, about two-thirds of the processed food in U.|
|Human, Social, and Environmental Impacts of Human Genetic Engineering | Insight Medical Publishing||Transgenics refers to those specific genetic engineering processes that remove genetic material from one species of plant or animal and add it to a different species. Due to the high similarity in genetic sequences for proteins among species, transgenic organisms are able to effectively assimilate and express these trans-genes.|
|Patra S, Andrew AA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
Foods produced from or using GM organisms are often referred to as GM foods. Why are GM foods produced?
GM foods are developed — and marketed — because there is some perceived advantage either to the producer or consumer of these foods. This is meant to translate into a product with a lower price, greater benefit in terms of durability or nutritional value or both.
Initially GM seed developers wanted their products to be accepted by producers and have concentrated on innovations that bring direct benefit to farmers and the food industry generally.
One of the objectives for developing plants based on GM organisms is to improve crop protection. The GM crops currently on the market are mainly aimed at an increased level of crop protection through the introduction of resistance against plant diseases caused by insects or viruses or through increased tolerance towards herbicides.
Resistance against insects is achieved by incorporating into the food plant the gene for toxin production from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Bt. This toxin is currently used as a conventional insecticide in agriculture and is safe for human consumption.
GM crops that inherently produce this toxin have been shown to require lower quantities of insecticides in specific situations, e. Virus resistance is achieved through the introduction of a gene from certain viruses which cause disease in plants.
Virus resistance makes plants less susceptible to diseases caused by such viruses, resulting in higher crop yields. Herbicide tolerance is achieved through the introduction of a gene from a bacterium conveying resistance to some herbicides.
In situations where weed pressure is high, the use of such crops has resulted in a reduction in the quantity of the herbicides used. Is the safety of GM foods assessed differently from conventional foods?
Generally consumers consider that conventional foods that have an established record of safe consumption over the history are safe. Whenever novel varieties of organisms for food use are developed using the traditional breeding methods that had existed before the introduction of gene technology, some of the characteristics of organisms may be altered, either in a positive or a negative way.
National food authorities may be called upon to examine the safety of such conventional foods obtained from novel varieties of organisms, but this is not always the case. In contrast, most national authorities consider that specific assessments are necessary for GM foods.
Specific systems have been set up for the rigorous evaluation of GM organisms and GM foods relative to both human health and the environment. Similar evaluations are generally not performed for conventional foods.
Hence there currently exists a significant difference in the evaluation process prior to marketing for these two groups of food.It looks like you've lost connection to our server. Please check your internet connection or reload this page. These concerns range from ethical issues to lack of knowledge on the effects genetic engineering may have.
One major concern is that once an altered gene is placed in an organism, the process cannot be reversed.
Genetic engineering, or genetic modification, uses a variety of tools and techniques from biotechnology and bioengineering to modify an organism’s genetic makeup. Transgenics refers to those specific genetic engineering processes that remove genetic material from one species of plant or animal and add it to a different species. For example, in a case study of public opinion on issues related to genetic engineering, participants raised concerns about the “nature” of animals and how this is affected (negatively) by genetic engineering. The Christian and Genetic Engineering Article ID: DG | By: Michael McKenzie email. Print. Twitter. Facebook. Google+. There are serious medical concerns as well. To correct a faulty gene presents little danger to the patient. One of the fastest growing areas in the broad field of genetics is prenatal testing — the attempt to detect.
Genetic engineering, or genetic modification, uses a variety of tools and techniques from biotechnology and bioengineering to modify an organism’s genetic makeup. Transgenics refers to those specific genetic engineering processes that remove genetic material from one species of plant or animal and add it to a different species.
The genetic engineering of animals has increased significantly in recent years, and the use of this technology brings with it ethical issues, some of which relate to animal welfare — defined by the World Organisation for Animal Health as “the state of the animal how an animal is coping with.
Genetic engineering could be used to develop pharmaceuticals and vaccines in plants, decreasing the risk of adverse reactions and enabling faster vaccination of large populations.
Although weighing risks and benefits is necessary, it is neither easy nor the sole .
For example, in a case study of public opinion on issues related to genetic engineering, participants raised concerns about the “nature” of animals and how this is affected (negatively) by genetic engineering.