Overview[ edit ] Tax-free commuter benefits, also known as qualified transportation fringes, are employer provided voluntary benefit programs that allow employees to reduce their monthly commuting expenses for transit, vanpooling, bicycling, and work-related parking costs. Monies used for these eligible expenses are excludable from gross income subject to federal taxes. Many states also exclude these monies from state and local taxes.
Executive Summary Using the latest Census Bureau data from andthis paper provides a detailed picture of the more than 50 million immigrants legal and illegal and their U. Moreover, many immigrants make significant progress the longer they live in the country. But even with this progress, immigrants who have been in the United States for 20 years are much more likely to live in poverty, lack health insurance, and access the welfare system than are native-born Americans.
The large share of immigrants arriving as adults with relatively little education partly explains this phenomenon. Overall Numbers The number of immigrants legal and illegal in the country hit a new record of 40 million ina 28 percent increase over the total in Of top sending countries, the largest percentage increase in the last decade was for those from Honduras 85 percentIndia 74 percentGuatemala 73 percentPeru 54 percentEl Salvador 49 percentEcuador 48 percentand China 43 percent.
Labor Force In March ofthe share of working-age 18 to 65 immigrants holding a job was the same as natives — 68 percent. Immigrant men have higher rates of work than native-born men, while immigrant women have lower rates. While immigrants tend to be concentrated in certain jobs, natives comprise the majority of workers in virtually every occupational category.
For example, natives comprise 52 percent of maids, 73 percent of janitors, 66 percent of construction laborers, and 65 percent of butchers and meat processors. Poverty In23 percent of immigrants and their U. Immigrants and their children accounted for one-fourth of all persons in poverty.
The children of immigrants account for one-third of all children in poverty. Among the top sending countries, poverty is highest for immigrants and their young children from Mexico 35 percentHonduras 34 percentand Guatemala 31 percent ; and lowest for those from Germany 7 percentIndia 6 percentand the Philippines 6 percent.
Welfare Use In36 percent of immigrant-headed households used at least one major welfare program primarily food assistance and Medicaid compared to 23 percent of native households.
Among the top sending countries, welfare use is highest for households headed by immigrants from Mexico 57 percentGuatemala 55 percentand the Dominican Republic 54 percent ; and lowest for those from Canada 13 percentGermany 10 percentand the United Kingdom 6 percent.
Health Insurance Coverage In29 percent of immigrants and their U. New immigrants and their U. Among the top sending countries, the highest rates of uninsurance are for those from Guatemala 46 percentHonduras 44 percentEl Salvador 44 percentand Mexico 41 percent ; and lowest for those from Canada 9 percentJapan 8 percentand Germany 5 percent.
Public Schools There are Of these students, 78 percent speak a language other than English at home. Overall, one in four public school students now speaks a language other than English at home.
Homeownership Of immigrant households, 53 percent are owner-occupied, compared to 68 percent of native households.
Rates of home ownership are highest for immigrants from Italy 83 percentGermany 75 percentand the United Kingdom 73 percent ; and lowest for those from Guatemala 30 percentHonduras 28 percentand the Dominican Republic 24 percent. Housing Overcrowding In13 percent of immigrant households were overcrowded, compared to 2 percent of native households.
Immigrant households account for half of all overcrowded households. Entrepreneurship Immigrants and natives have very similar rates of entrepreneurship — Among the top sending countries, self-employment is highest for immigrants from Korea 26 percentCanada 24 percentand the United Kingdom 17 percent.
It is lowest for those from Haiti 6 percentHonduras 5 percentand Jamaica 3 percent. Educational Attainment Of adult immigrants 25 to 6528 percent have not completed high school, compared to 7 percent of natives. The large share of immigrants with relatively little education is one of the primary reasons for their lower socioeconomic status, not their legal status or an unwillingness to work.
At the same time immigration added significantly to the number of less-educated workers, the share of young, less-educated natives holding a job declined significantly.
The decline began well before the current economic downturn.
Progress Over Time Many immigrants make significant progress the longer they live in the country. However, on average even immigrants who have lived in the United States for 20 years have not come close to closing the gap with natives.
The poverty rate of adult immigrants who have lived in the United States for 20 years is 50 percent higher than that of adult natives. The share of adult immigrants who have lived in the United States for 20 years who lack health insurance is twice that of adult natives.The High Cost of Free Parking, Updated Edition [Donald Shoup] on metin2sell.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
One of the American Planning Association’s most popular and influential books is finally in paperback. Executive Summary.
Many proclaim that the days of the internal combustion engine are numbered because of emerging “zero-emissions vehicle” (ZEV) technologies, especially battery-powered electric vehicles, which supposedly offer better performance, lower cost.
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Members of the Media: Please contact NFDA for a regional breakdown of the cost of a funeral with burial and funeral with cremation and further information about the General Price List Survey. The VA National Cemetery Administration honors the military service of our Nation's veterans.
We provide a dignified burial and lasting memorial for veterans and their eligible family members and we maintain our veterans' cemeteries as national shrines. Executive Summary. Many proclaim that the days of the internal combustion engine are numbered because of emerging “zero-emissions vehicle” (ZEV) technologies, especially battery-powered electric vehicles, which supposedly offer better performance, lower cost, and, most important, “emissions-free” driving.
The VA National Cemetery Administration honors the military service of our Nation's veterans. We provide a dignified burial and lasting memorial for veterans and their eligible family members and we maintain our veterans' cemeteries as national shrines.