By Thomas Lunydated The vessel chosen by the Admiralty for the voyage was a merchant collier named Earl of Pembroke, launched in June from the coal and whaling port of Whitby in North Yorkshire. Her hull was sheathed and caulkedand a third internal deck installed to provide cabins, a powder magazine and storerooms. Alcohol supplies consisted of barrels of beer, 44 barrels of brandy and 17 barrels of rum.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Consortia put together by a royal treasury official and composed mainly of Genoese and Florentine bankers in Sevilla Seville provided at least 1, maravedis to outfit the expedition, and Columbus supplied more than a third of the sum contributed by the king and queen.
The westerlies prevailing in the Azores had defeated previous attempts to sail to the west, but in the Canaries the three ships could pick up the northeast trade winds; First voyage, they could trust to the westerlies for their return. Library of Congress, Washington, D. But by October 10 the crew had begun to lose patience, complaining that with their failure to make landfall, contrary winds and a shortage of provisions would keep them from returning home.
Beyond planting the royal banner, however, Columbus spent little time there, being anxious to press on to Cipango, or Cipangu Japan.
He thought that he had found it in Cubawhere he landed on October 28, but he convinced himself by November 1 that Cuba was the Cathay mainland itself, though he had yet to see evidence of great cities. Thus, on December 5, he turned back southeastward to search for the fabled city of Zaiton QuanzhouChinamissing through this decision his sole chance of setting foot on Florida soil.
There Columbus found at least enough gold and prosperity to save him from ridicule on his return to Spain. On January 16,Columbus left with his remaining two ships for Spain. The journey back was a nightmare.
The westerlies did indeed direct them homeward, but in mid-February a terrible storm engulfed the fleet.
After securing their freedom Columbus sailed on, stormbound, and the damaged ship limped to port in Lisbon. There he was obliged to interview with King John II. Columbus never openly acknowledged this gulf and so was quite incapable of bridging it.
The admiral also adopted a mode of sanctification and autocratic leadership that made him many enemies. Moreover, Columbus was determined to take back both material and human cargo to his sovereigns and for himself, and this could be accomplished only if his sailors carried on looting, kidnapping, and other violent acts, especially on Hispaniola.
The second and third voyages The gold, parrots, spices, and human captives Columbus displayed for his sovereigns at Barcelona convinced all of the need for a rapid second voyage. Colonization and Christian evangelization were openly included this time in the plans, and a group of friars shipped with him.
The presence of some 1, salaried men with perhaps private investors and a small troop of cavalry are testimony to the anticipations for the expedition. Pierpont Morgan, Here was a clear sign that Taino resistance had gathered strength. More fortified places were rapidly built, including a city, founded on January 2 and named La Isabela for the queen.
In March Columbus explored the Cibao Valley thought to be the gold-bearing region of the island and established the fortress of St.
The admiral decided that Hispaniola was indeed the biblical land of Sheba and that Cuba was the mainland of Cathay. The following year he began a determined conquest of Hispaniola, spreading devastation among the Taino.
The admiral departed La Isabela for Spain on March 10,leaving his brothers, Bartholomew and Diego, in charge of the settlement.
Spain was then at war with France and needed to buy and keep its alliances; moreover, the yield from the second voyage had fallen well short of the investment. Portugal was still a threat, though the two nations had divided the Atlantic conveniently between themselves in the Treaty of Tordesillas June 7, According to the treaty, Spain might take all land west of a line drawn from pole to pole leagues—i.
But what about the other side of the world, where West met East?Title: The First voyage Creator(s): L.
Prang & Co., Date Created/Published: Boston: Published by The Prang Educational Co., Medium: 1 print: chromolithograph. Summary: Christopher Columbus . The first voyage of James Cook was a combined Royal Navy and Royal Society expedition to the south Pacific Ocean aboard HMS Endeavour, from to It was the first of three Pacific voyages of which Cook was the commander.
First Chesapeake Voyage: June 2 to July 21, Captain John Smith led 14 men on his first voyage.
In search of a route to the Pacific, the band headed north along today's Eastern Shore then moved to the Western Shore to probe the rivers now called Patapsco, Potomac, and Rappahannock.
Nearly every day, the crew encountered native people. First Voyage James Cook was appointed to command a ship called Endeavour, which left Plymouth on 26 August, Information about her and the men who sailed in her can be found below, with links to information found elsewhere on our website.
The first voyage. The ships for the first voyage—the Niña, Pinta, and Santa María—were fitted out at Palos, on the Tinto River in Spain. First voyage At in the morning of 3 August , Columbus departed from Castilian Palos de la Frontera (on the river Saltes, at the confluence of the rivers Rio Tinto and Rio Odiel).
 Columbus and his crew embarked on a voyage to find a shorter route to India and the Orient with three medium-sized ships, the Niña (real name Santa Clara), the Pinta, and the Santa Maria.