Global Burden of Disease and Injury Series. Harvard School of Public Health, Impending Global Pandemic of Cardiovascular Diseases.
Rheumatic heart disease — heart muscles and valves damage due to rheumatic fever caused by Streptococcus pyogenes a group A streptococcal infection. Risk factors There are many risk factors for heart diseases: One of them relates to serum cholesterol level.
In men, this increase levels off around age 45 to 50 years. In women, the increase continues sharply until age 60 to 65 years.
Estrogen may have protective effects on glucose metabolism and hemostatic system, and may have direct effect in improving endothelial cell function.
These effects may, at least in part, explain its cardiovascular benefits. The World Health Organization attributes approximately 1. There is a direct relationship between high levels of alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease.
However, delays in recognition and diagnosis of celiac disease can cause irreversible heart damage. Psychosocial factors, environmental exposures, health behaviours, and health-care access and quality contribute to socio-economic differentials in cardiovascular disease. They include family history, coronary artery calcification score, high sensitivity C-reactive protein hs-CRPankle—brachial pressure indexlipoprotein subclasses and particle concentration, lipoprotein aapolipoproteins A-I and B, fibrinogenwhite blood cell count, homocysteineN-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide NT-proBNPand markers of kidney function.
There is evidence that workplace exposure to lead, carbon disulphide, phenoxyacids containing TCDD, as well as working in an environment where aluminium is being electrolytically produced, is associated with stroke.
Several large-scale research projects looking at human genetic data have found a robust link between the presence of these mutations, a condition known as clonal hematopoiesisand cardiovascular disease-related incidents and mortality. The Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth PDAY study demonstrated that intimal lesions appear in all the aortas and more than half of the right coronary arteries of youths aged 7—9 years.
In order to stem the tide, education and awareness that cardiovascular disease poses the greatest threat, and measures to prevent or reverse this disease must be taken.
Alcohol can have both a damaging and protective role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Despite convincing evidence that low to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, consumption should be limited because of the risk of other cardiovascular diseases . Of the cardiovascular conditions studied, ischemic heart disease, also known as coronary artery or heart artery disease, was the leading cause of health loss in every region of the world except. Cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the commonest cause of death in the industrialized world, with incidence rates increasing as people enter their fifth decade of life.
Obesity and diabetes mellitus are often linked to cardiovascular disease,  as are a history of chronic kidney disease and hypercholesterolaemia. Framingham or Reynolds risk scores.
The number and variety of risk scores available for use has multiplied, but their efficacy according to a review was unclear due to lack of external validation or impact analysis.
Tobacco cessation and avoidance of second-hand smoke.
Excessive alcohol intake increases the risk of cardiovascular disease   and consumption of alcohol is associated with increased risk of a cardiovascular event in the day following consumption. A Cochrane Review found some evidence that interventions aiming to reduce more than one cardiovascular risk factor may have beneficial effects on blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference; however, evidence was limited and the authors were unable to draw firm conclusions on the effects on cardiovascular events and mortality.
It is unclear whether or not dental care in those with periodontitis affects their risk of cardiovascular disease. Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease and Salt and cardiovascular disease A diet high in fruits and vegetables decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease and death.
A Cochrane review found some evidence that yoga has beneficial effects on blood pressure and cholesterol, but studies included in this review were of low quality.
Epidemiology Cardiovascular diseases deaths per million persons in —Of the cardiovascular conditions studied, ischemic heart disease, also known as coronary artery or heart artery disease, was the leading cause of health loss in every region of the world except.
Cardiovascular disease, a general term that encompasses diseases of the heart and blood vessels, is the leading cause of death in developed metin2sell.comry heart disease (CHD), also known as coronary artery disease or ischemic heart disease, is the most common—and the most.
WHO cardiovascular diseases fact sheet providing key facts and information on risk factors, symptoms, rheumatic heart disease, treatment and prevention, WHO response. Rheumatic fever mostly affects children in developing countries, especially where poverty is widespread. Globally, about 2% of deaths from cardiovascular diseases is related.
developing countries, half of all deaths of women over 50 are due to heart disease and stroke.
8 • CVD is the leading cause of death in Europe, accounting for over 4 million deaths each year. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are increasing in epidemic proportions in developing countries.
CVD already accounts for almost 10 percent of the developing world's burden of disease and is likely to become the developing world's leading cause of death.
Early Age of CVD Deaths in Developing Countries. Although the present high burden of CVD deaths is in itself an adequate reason for attention, a greater cause for concern is the early age of CVD deaths in the developing countries compared with the developed countries.