Beneficence non maleficence and respect for autonomy essay

Yet the reasons for such discouragement are clear. Circumcision of boys may be performed only by physicians when there are medical benefits attributed. That is the premise of the KNMG, the organization of and for physicians. Destructiveness The International Convention on the Rights of the Child ICRC says that the government is required to ensure that harmful traditional practices be abolished.

Beneficence non maleficence and respect for autonomy essay

Doctors may reasonably be blamed for harm arising from unnecessary genital surgeries A well considered article in the AMA Journal of Ethics published by American Medical Association argues that in many cases doctors are blameworthy when harm arises from unnecessary genital surgeries that they perform.

The Abstract reads as follows: First, we consider surgeries performed on newborns and toddlers with atypical sex development, or intersex. Second, we discuss routine neonatal male circumcision.

Finally, we consider cosmetic vaginal surgery. It is important for physicians not just to know when and why to perform genital surgery, but also to understand how their patients might react to wrongful performance of these procedures.

Equally, physicians should know how to respond to their own blameworthiness in socially productive and morally restorative ways. Non-therapeutic circumcision is a form of iatrogenic injury In a related article in the same journal, J.

Steven Svoboda, director of Attorneys for the Rights of the Child, argues that non-therapeutic circumcision is a form of iatrogenic injury i. Non-therapeutic circumcision NTC of male infants and boys is a common but misunderstood form of iatrogenic injury that causes harm by removing functional tissue that has known erogenous, protective, and immunological properties, regardless of whether the surgery generates complications.

When due consideration is given to these values, the balance of factors suggests that NTC should be deferred until the affected person can perform his own cost-benefit analysis, applying his mature, informed preferences and values.

The 1-year risk of becoming infected with HIV was found to be 8. The year risk of HIV acquisition was In other words, the study showed that circumcision provided no significant protection against HIV transmission, and scored extremely poorly in comparison with condom use alone.

The only strategy more effective than consistent condom use was regular medication with PrEP medications: That being the case, it is time to consign circumcision as an HIV prevention tactic to the dustbin of medical mistakes where it belongs.

Rev Panam Salud Publica. In memory of Laurence Cox Circumcision Information Australia would like gratefully to acknowledge a generous gift from the estate of the late Laurence Cox.

Dr Cox was a much-loved university teacher in Newcastle where he undertook investigations into the harm of circumcision and established support groups for men who felt they had been injured.

On his death Dr Cox left a generous donation to Circumcision Information Australia in his will in order to assist us to continue our efforts to promote awareness of the harm of circumcision and defend the right of all children both girls and boys to bodily integrity. The subjective dimension of foreskin loss.

Full text available here. The three-month-old boy was circumcised for religious reasons [i. The mother is being assisted by Tim Alford from the anti-circumcision group Men Do Complain, who said the boy has already experienced discomfort because of being circumcised.

At the moment [his mother] is applying a prescription moisturising lotion, and ensuring he has soft underwear. Full details on this site. The law and ethics of male circumcision: BMA guidelines Guidelines on circumcision issued by the British Medical Association are critical of non-therapeutic circumcision and state clearly that consent from both parents is necessary.

When parents disagree about whether a child should be circumcised, doctors should not circumcise without the leave of a court. Doctors must make accurate, contemporaneous notes of discussions, consent, the procedure and its aftercare.

The medical harms or benefits of circumcision have not been unequivocally proven but there are clear risks of harm if the procedure is done inexpertly. All children who are capable of expressing a view should be involved in decisions about whether they should be circumcised, and their wishes taken into account.

beneficence non maleficence and respect for autonomy essay

BBC News, 2 June Circumcised men at twice the risk for cancer-causing Human Papilloma Virus A study presented at the annual meeting of the American Urological Association has found that circumcised men are twice as likely to harbour human papilloma virus HPVcertain strains of which cause genital warts and various genital cancers in both males and females.

Previous studies on this question have been inconclusive: This is the first study to show that circumcision may actually increase the risk of HPV infection and thus of the cancers that it causes. A key finding of the study is that HPV is quite commonly found throughout the population and that most strains are not harmful.

An even more important point to note is that there are now effective vaccines against these strains, available for both boys and girls and providing long-term protection.

The full text of the report follows. They queried the database for data regarding all men aged 18 to 59 years who had received penile swabs from to Of 1, men for whom there was complete information regarding HPV infection and circumcision status, they found that Of note, they found that only 2.A.

beneficence non maleficence and respect for autonomy essay

AGS Ethics Committee, Physician-Assisted Suicide and Voluntary Active Euthanasia. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, May , 43(5) Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.

Medical ethics is based on a set of values that professionals can refer to in the case of any confusion or conflict.

These values include the respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. Such tenets may . News about circumcision from Australia and around the world: Law should treat circumcision and FGM consistently; Child circumcision cannot be justified as public health measure.

Medical ethics, human rights and law. Circumcision is more than a medical or health issue. Bodily integrity is recognized as a fundamental human right, basic to the autonomy of the individual and guaranteed by law.

Principles — Respect, Justice, Nonmaleficence, Beneficence Adapted with permission from Laura Bishop, Ph.D., Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University Respect for Persons/Autonomy Acknowledge a person’s right to make choices, to hold views, and to take actions based on Beneficence (do good) Provide benefits to persons and.

In health and social care there are four ethic principles: Justice Autonomy Beneficence Non-maleficence The principles were put in place for patients and doctors to make sure that there is respect from both parties, Respect. Respect Essay I am very lucky to .

Medical ethics - Wikipedia